Results Of 1624 patients with autism included in this study, 1299 were boys (80%) and 325 were girls (20%). Families in the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange collection (933 families, encompassing 4041 individuals: 1624 patients with ASD and 2417 healthy parents and siblings) had been previously recruited in the United States with no restrictions on age, sex, race/ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. Relative to the most common European haplogroup HHV, European haplogroups I, J, K, O-X, T, and U were associated with increased risk of ASD, as were Asian and Native American haplogroups A and M, with odds ratios ranging from (95% CI, -) to (95% CI, -3) (adjusted P < .04). Hence, mtDNA haplogroup variation is an important risk factor for ASD.
Martha is a Board Certified Family Medicine Physician. She graduated from the George Washington University School of Medicine and completed a Family Medicine Residency as well as an OB/GYN Fellowship at the University of Rochester in New York. In addition to her experience in providing thoughtful and personal comprehensive care for all ages, Dr. Chalmers has had many years experience as an Emergency Room attending physician and as the primary provider at Planned Parenthood of Maryland. She enjoys clinical teaching and mentoring students who are exploring an interest in medicine, maintaining contact with several students who have gone on to medical school and advanced nursing degrees.