'Instead, it (ME) remains trapped somewhere between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.' I think the 7th century is more appropriate as a starting point.
One of the things that I find disturbing is the article talks as though there is some cohesion in the ME, there is not. I am not going to look up the exact number but the last time I looked there were something in the number of a dozen or more different groups in Syria all fighting one another in many cases with apparently irreconcilable differences. With the Kurds - which are mentioned - for example they are only interested in moving to a certain physical boundary of their own definition in Syria and no further. They will not move past that point in a common cause. Fair enough. However it is the very fragmented nature of the population politically which is part of the problem and this is resistant to external influence, which essentially is the underlying proposition
Much of what is going on in the ME is proxy war or proxy engagement funded by regional wealth, and until that stops nothing will stablise, because the proxy objective is to destablise.
All the references to the West's intervention simply say intervention doesnt work in practice yet the underlying narrative of the article is intervention should continue. The author needs to come clarity on what he is actually proposing other than to say it is all a bit difficult, because we know that already
The basic problem appears to be the fragmented nature of the ME and the proxy funding of conflict. If so that proxy funding is the principle issue. That proxy funding is based on wealth gained by trade with the West. Thus the answer lies in trade not intervention
MOSCOW - Russian bombers based in Iran on Tuesday struck militant targets inside Syria, the Russian Defense Ministry said, after Moscow deployed Russian aircraft to an Iranian air force base to widen its campaign in Syria.
The ministry said the strikes, by Tupolev-22M3 long-range bombers and Sukhoi-34 fighter bombers, were launched from Iran's Hamadan air base.
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It is thought to be the first time that Russia has struck targets inside Syria from Iran since it launched a bombing campaign to support Syrian President Bashar Assad in September last year.
The move shows Russia is expanding its role and presence in the Middle East and comes amid Russian media reports Moscow has asked Iran and Iraq for permission to fire cruise missiles at Syrian targets across their territory from the Caspian Sea.
The ministry said Tuesday's strikes had targeted Islamic State and militants previously known as the Nusra Front in the Aleppo, Idlib and Deir al Zour provinces.
The bombers had been protected by fighters based at Russia's Hmeymim air base in Syria's Latakia Province, it said.
Russia's state-backed Rossiya 24 channel earlier on Tuesday broadcast uncaptioned images of at least three bombers and a Russian military transport plane apparently inside Iran, but said it was unclear how many Russian bombers had arrived there.
It said the deployment would allow the Russian air force to cut flight times by 60 percent and increase bombing payloads.
Russian media said the Tupolev-22M3 bombers, which had already conducted many strikes on militants in Syria from their home bases in southern Russia, were too large to be accommodated at Russia's air base inside Syria.
The Iranian air base near Hamadan, sometimes also called Hamedan, is located in north-west Iran and the Russian bombers would have to over fly Iraq to strike Syria.
The head of Iran's National Security Council said on Tuesday that Tehran and Moscow are sharing facilities to fight against terrorism, after Russia confirmed that its long-range bombers based in Iran had struck targets inside Syria.
"Iranian-Russian cooperation in the fight against terrorism in Syria is a strategic one and we share our potential and facilities in this field," Ali Shamkhani was quoted as saying by state news agency IRNA.
Being a federal republic, Germany is very much a decentralised country, which embraces the cultural differences between the regions. Some travellers will perhaps only think of beer, Lederhosen and Oktoberfest when Germany comes to mind, but Germany's famous alpine and beer culture is mostly centered around Bavaria and Munich . Here the beer is traditionally served in 1 litre mugs (normally not in pubs and restaurants, though). The annual Oktoberfest is Europe's most visited festival and the world's largest fair. Germany's south-western regions, however, are well known for their wine growing areas (. Rheinhessen and Palatinate ) and Bad Dürkheim on the 'German Wine Route' ( Deutsche Weinstraße ) organises the biggest wine festival worldwide with over 600,000 visitors annually.