Molybdenum (Mo) is a trace element that is essential for important cellular processes. To gain biological activity, Mo must be complexed in the molybdenum cofactor (Moco), a pterin derivative of low molecular weight. Moco synthesis is a multi-step pathway that involves a variable number of genes in eukaryotes, which are assigned to four steps of eukaryotic Moco biosynthesis. Moco biosynthesis mutants lack any Moco-dependent enzymatic activities, including assimilation of nitrate (plants and fungi), detoxification of sulfite (humans and plants) and utilization of hypoxanthine as sole N-source (fungi). We report the first comprehensive genetic characterization of the Neurospora crassa (N. crassa) Moco biosynthesis pathway, annotating five genes which encode all pathway enzymes, and compare it with the characterized Aspergillus nidulans pathway. Biochemical characterization of the corresponding knock-out mutants confirms our annotation model, documenting the N. crassa/A. nidulans (fungal) Moco biosynthesis as unique, combining the organizational structure of both plant and human Moco biosynthesis genes.
Catechins released into the ground by some plants may hinder the growth of their neighbors, a form of allelopathy .  Centaurea maculosa , the spotted knapweed often studied for this behavior, releases catechin isomers into the ground through its roots, potentially having effects as an antibiotic or herbicide . One hypothesis is that it causes a reactive oxygen species wave through the target plant's root to kill root cells by apoptosis .  Most plants in the European ecosystem have defenses against catechin, but few plants are protected against it in the North American ecosystem where Centaurea maculosa is an invasive, uncontrolled weed. 
Ginsenosides are a special group of triterpenoid saponins that can be classified into two groups by the skeleton of their aglycones, namely dammarane- and oleanane-type. Ginsenosides are found nearly exclusively in Panax species (ginseng) and up to now more than 150 naturally occurring ginsenosides have been isolated from roots, leaves/stems, fruits, and/or flower heads of ginseng. Ginsenosides have been the target of a lot of research as they are believed to be the main active principles behind the claims of ginsengs efficacy. The potential health effects of ginsenosides that are discussed in this chapter include anticarcinogenic, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antiatherosclerotic, antihypertensive, and antidiabetic effects as well as antistress activity and effects on the central nervous system. Ginsensoides can be metabolized in the stomach (acid hydrolysis) and in the gastrointestinal tract (bacterial hydrolysis) or transformed to other ginsenosides by drying and steaming of ginseng to more bioavailable and bioactive ginsenosides. The metabolization and transformation of intact ginsenosides, which seems to play an important role for their potential health effects, are discussed. Qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques for the analysis of ginsenosides are important in relation to quality control of ginseng products and plant material and for the determination of the effects of processing of plant material as well as for the determination of the metabolism and bioavailability of ginsenosides. Analytical techniques for the analysis of ginsenosides that are described in this chapter are thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with various detectors, gas chromatography (GC), colorimetry, enzyme immunoassays (EIA), capillary electrophoresis (CE), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and spectrophotometric methods.